Thursday, May 21, 2015

Celebrating ICOMOS' 50th Year

Members and friends of ICOMOS Philippines celebrated ICOMOS' 50th year at the Calvo Building in historic Escolta, Manila last April 18, 2015. Opening the celebration is ICOMOS Philippines' newly elected president, Architect Dominic Galicia of Dominic Galicia Architects.

(First in a Series of 5)

Friday, April 17, 2015

Defending an Archipelago: the Spanish Colonial Church-Fortress in the Philippines by Boj Capati

Boj Capati presents his paper "Defending an Archipelago: the Spanish Colonial Church-Fortress in the Philippines"

Monday, December 01, 2014

Dominic Galicia is newly-elected President of ICOMOS Philippines

Architect Dominic Q. Galicia was elected President of ICOMOS Philippines by the Board of Trustees at elections held last Saturday. He is Principal Architect of 
Dominic Galicia Architects, a design-oriented practice whose work has been recognized for its sensitive attention to both concept and detail.

Galicia obtained his professional degree in architecture in 1988 from the University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, where he was a Notre Dame Scholar.  He received a University of Notre Dame Distinguished Asian Pacific Alumni Award in June 2005.  He also studied architecture for a year at Notre Dame's campus in Rome, and pursued graduate studies in architecture at Pratt Institute in New York.

Although a modernist by philosophy, he is deeply concerned with the preservation of historic architectural sites. He has served as Vice President of the Heritage Conservation Society, member of the Executive Council of the National Committee on Monuments and Sites (NCMS) of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), and on the Board of Trustees of the Philippine Green Building Initiative (PGBI). He represents the Philippines in the ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Twentieth-century Heritage (ISC20C), in which capacity he helped to develop “BPO@Escolta,” the public-private initiative to revive Manila’s historic downtown. Ongoing projects include the proposed 20,000 square meter National Museum of Natural History, in Rizal Park, Manila.

Also elected were Architect Rene Luis S. Mata (Vice President for National Affairs), Architect Ma. Joycelyn B. Mananghaya (Vice President for International Affairs), Patricia Maria C. Santiago (Secretary), and Architect Melvin G. Patawaran (Treasurer).

Friday, November 28, 2014

Villalon named Honorary Member, Henares elected ICTC VP, resolution on Rizal Monument approved at 18th ICOMOS GA

The International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) elevated Arch. Augusto F. Villalon to Honorary Member during its 18th General Assembly last November 15 in Florence, Italy. Honorary Membership is conferred by the General Assembly upon individuals who have rendered distinguished service in the field of conservation, restoration and enhancement of historical monuments, sites, and groups of buildings.

This recognition is given every 3 years during the ICOMOS General Assembly and 6 members have been conferred this year. Arch. Villalon is the first Filipino to be conferred as Honorary Member of the International Council on Monuments and Sites. Congratulations!

For more information, read: Cebuano architect is named to int’l heritage council.

Ivan Anthony Henares, was elected Vice President of the International Cultural Tourism Committee (ICTC) during their annual meeting also held in Florence, Italy. ICTC is the ICOMOS scientific committee which promotes the sustainable development and responsible management of cultural tourism at places of cultural heritage significance – historic towns, cultural landscapes, archaeological sites and cultural routes – including World Heritage Sites.

The post was previously held by another Filipino, Architect Villalon. In announcing Henares' election, Villalon said, "Ivan Henares was just unanimously elected Vice President of the ICOMOS Cultural Tourism Committee. I know that Ivan will maintain the strong presence of the Philippines in the ICOMOS Cultural Tourism Committee."

During the general assembly, a resolution was passed regarding the historic Rizal Monument. The original version was drafted by ICOMOS Philippines. Senator Pia Cayetano and Ambassador Virgilio Reyes attended the general assembly to push for the resolution. Here is the text of the resolution:

Resolution 18GA2014/31

Protection of Cultural Heritage in Relation to Real Estate Development: Rizal Monument, Manila, Philippines
(submitted by ICOMOS Philippines)

The 18th General Assembly of ICOMOS,

Recalling the International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites, also known as the Venice Charter, which states, inter alia, that “the concept of a historical monument embraces not only the single architectural work but also the urban or rural setting in which it is found the evidence of a particular development or a historical event” and “the conservation of a monument implies preserving a setting which is not out of scale,”

Recalling moreover that the Venice Charter provides that “the sites of monuments must be the object of special care in order to safeguard their integrity and ensure that they are cleared and presented in a seemly manner,”

Noting that the Monument to the Philippine National Hero, Dr Jose Rizal, whose remains are buried in it and near the scene of his execution in Luneta Park, has been an enduring, honored, and iconic site for all Filipinos ever since it was inaugurated on 30 December 1913 in the City of Manila,”

Recalling that the National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) has issued “Guidelines on Monuments Honoring National Heroes, Illustrious Filipinos, and other Personages”, which provides the need to “keep vista points and visual corridors to monuments clear for unobstructed viewing and photographic opportunities,”

Noting with grave concern that construction has begun on a 46-storey residential building located 400 meters from Rizal Park which may significantly compromise key sightlines of Rizal Monument and could have detrimental impacts on the heritage values and on the setting of this national monument,

Encourages all authorities of the Philippines to work in cooperation with ICOMOS Philippines to develop and implement conservation measures for the protection of Rizal Monument and its setting.

For more information, read: Pia Cayetano: Rizal Monument named one of world’s threatened heritage sites.

Thursday, November 28, 2013

ICOMOS Philippines members elected to NCCA NCMS Executive Council

NCMS Officers (seated left to right): Engr. Ruel B. Ramirez (Asst. Secretary), Atty. Lucille Kay E. Malilong-Isberto (Head), Archt. Rene Luis Mata (Vice Head) & Ivan Anthony S. Henares (Secretary); Members (standing from left to right): Rev. Fr. Milan Ted D. Torralba (CBCP), Archt. Christian A. Santamaria (University of Northern Philippines), Archt. Michael T. Ang (UAP), Archt. Wilkie B. Delumen (NHCP), Archt. Richard T. Bautista, Archt. Melva R. Java & Angel P. Bautista (National Museum). Not in photo are Edna N. Aragon (DILG) & Archt. Carmen Bettina S. Bulaong (University of the Philippines, Diliman)
Several members of ICOMOS Philippines were elected to the 2014-2016 Executive Council of the NCCA National Committee on Monuments and Sites (NCMS). They include Atty. Lucille Kay E. Malilong-Isberto (Head), Archt. Rene Luis Mata (Vice Head), Ivan Anthony S. Henares (Secretary), Archt. Carmen Bettina S. Bulaong and Archt. Melva R. Java.

NCMS, under the Subcommission for Cultural Heritage (SCH), is one of the 19 national committees under the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), the cultural arm of the government. Its mandate is to assist the NCCA in conserving the rich Filipino built heritage and its environments. Its main task is to formulate strategies, policies, plans, programs, projects, and networking for the protection of historic structures, complexes, and landscapes throughout the Philippines.

Monday, December 17, 2012

Ivan Henares named 2012 TOYM awardee for Heritage Conservation

ICOMOS Philippines member and ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Committee (ICTC) Expert Voting Member Ivan Anthony Henares was named one of The Outstanding Young Men (TOYM) of the Philippines for 2012. He is the first awardee ever for the category of Heritage Conservation, which makes the honor doubly significant. This is one of the most prestigious professional awards given in the Philippines.

For more information, read: JCI names 2012 TOYM awardees.

Thursday, November 08, 2012

International Cultural Tourism Committee holds its 2012 Annual Meeting and Conference in the Philippines

An international conference on cultural tourism was held on November 7/8 2012 in the World Heritage city of Vigan, capital of the province of Ilocos Sur on the west coast of the Philippines island of Luzon. The event demonstrated both the rising influence of the ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Committee (ICTC) and the energy and sophistication of the ICOMOS Philippines organising team.

Billed as 'cultural tourism for community development' and part of the 40 year celebration of the World Heritage Convention, the two day conference attracted more than 200 delegates from around the world, including a large contingent of students from local universities.

Held in the Ilocos Sur Provincial Capitol building facing St Paul's Cathedral across Vigan's Plaza Salcado, the conference heard a wide variety of speakers whose subjects reflected the broad range of projects and experience encompassed by the cultural tourism industry.

Bureau of the International Cultural Tourism Committee: Suzanne Bott (USA), Treasurer; Susan Millar (UK), President; Augusto Villalon (Philippines), Vice President; and Murray Brown (Australia), Secretary General
In his welcome to delegates ICOMOS Philippines President Augusto Villalon, who is also Vice-President of the ICTC, said that 20 years ago Vigan was a provincial backwater whose colonial buildings were regarded as an impediment to future economic prosperity. As a result of the persistent advocacy of a small group of heritage enthusiasts and the adoption of consistent pro-heritage policies by the provincial and city governments, Vigan had won World Heritage recognition in 2007 as the best preserved Spanish colonial city in Asia. Heritage conservation and tourism are now the foundation on which its future economic growth is based.

Extending this theme, Hon. Felipe de Leon, Chairman of the Philippines National Commission for Culture and the Arts, noted that pride in Filipino culture is a relatively recent phenomenon; it will be a few decades yet before the country shakes off the attitudinal residue of centuries of foreign domination. He advocated fostering the arts as the generator of cultural and economic development, citing the European Renaissance as a model. There is a need to promote the unique qualities of the best the Philippines has to offer, including dissemination of inspiring national stories like that of the revolutionary hero José Rizal.

Conference Chair Ivan Henares, National Museum Director Jeremy Barns, Ambassador Jose Maria Carino, ICOMOS Philippines President Augusto Villalon, ICOMOS ICTC President Susan Millar, DOT Director Cynthia Lazo, Conference Co-Chair Ivan Man Dy. Photo by Anson Yu
In her opening address, ICTC President Sue Millar described cultural tourism as the world's greatest  education program, involving millions of travellers eager to explore and explain the world they live in. She said that cultural tourism already constitutes 40% of the total world tourism industry, and its share continues to grow. She praised her ICTC predecessors for the development of the Cultural Tourism Charter, which had become an influential set of principles for tourism planners.

While noting that the industry faces many challenges, such as the over-development of infrastructure and the intrusion of mass tourism into sensitive heritage sites, she said it was important to focus on how the benefits of tourism are spread to local people. Without a continuing focus on the unique qualities of each heritage place the industry is in danger of destroying the source of its strength, and of its very existence. Noting the presence of a large group of students at the conference, she promised that the next stage of the committee's development would be centred around destination planning, training and capacity building.

Her immediate ICTC predecessor, President Emeritus Graham Brooks, delivered a practical presentation on the benefits of merchandising, reminding delegates that products that seem mundane and everyday in their local context can be highly prized by travellers, who take them home as reminders of their visit and as gifts for friends and family. He said these souvenirs do not need to be cheap tourist rubbish, but should instead be simple and honest products that reflect the artistic and craft skills and way of life of the host country.

With merchandising based on the labour-intensive production of inexpensive but quality products there is then room to develop a higher level of product with goods that, while based on national traditions, can be targeted to the more discerning and well-heeled tourist. The Jim Thompson silk brand in Thailand was a good example of how local traditions can be revived for the benefit of local artisans and the tourism market. He said the crucial distinction was that artisans need to be empowered to determine how the products are produced and sold, rather than relying on an outmoded model of exploitation and lowest-common-denominator marketing.

Other international speakers offered a wide range of observations:

  • Michèle Prats (France) on the economic and social impacts of heritage conservation;
  • Gurmeet Rai (India) on the Punjabi Grand Trunk Road;
  • Randy Durband (USA) on the tourism boom and bust life cycle and the importance of developing management policies to control visitor numbers;
  • Kwangsik Kim (Korea) on the development of sites honouring prominent local writers;
  • Hong Kong academic Hilary du Cros's research into cultural heritage tourist profiles;
  • Dr. Siegfried Enders (Germany) – President of the Shared Built Heritage International Scientific Committee - on the committee's studies in Poland, Suriname, South Africa and China;
  • Peter Ross (United Kingdom) on the importance of telling human stories at heritage sites and recruiting staff as the key interpreters of the site for visitors;
  • Ian Kelly (Australia) on place-based interpretation in Sydney's convict-era Rocks precinct;
  • Suzanne Bott (USA)  on the role of heritage in peace-making and re-building post-conflict communities;
  • Celia Martinez (Spain) on World Heritage properties featuring traditional agricultural practices;
  • Dr. Nur Al Din, Dean of Faculty of Archaeology and Tourism Guidance, Misr University for Science and Technology, University of Egypt, Cairo on the corrosive effects of congestion on iconic archaeological sites and the lack of official interest in addressing the problem;
  • Jaturong Pokharatsiri (Thailand) on the similarity between Vigan and the heritage towns of Hoi An (Vietnam) and Luang Prabang (Laos) and the opportunity for their tourism managers to learn from each other;
  • Sharon Brown and Alan Oliver's on the role of Hillsborough Castle in cultural tourism in Northern Ireland; and
  • Jim Donovan (USA) on his analysis of small town heritage tourism in the USA using the principles of the Cultural Tourism Charter.

The presentations by local speakers were of particular interest to the international delegates:

ICTC Vice-President Augusto Villalon described the plans for developing tourism in the historic Intramuros district of central Manila, the scene of devastation following World War II, where a streetscape project involving architecture students and local people provides the basis for a 'museum of the streets' concept aiming to engage with residents and visitors in a 21st century manner. Construction guidelines aim to create 'porous' ground floors throughout the district, encouraging street level activity and easy people movement; new housing is a fundamental consideration in developing residents' pride in this forgotten quarter of the country's capital city.

Joy Gerra, from the Ramon Aboitiz Foundation, spoke about a successful project in Cebu City. Gabii sa Kabilin is modelled on the German Lange Nacht der Museen (Long Night of Museums) and provides a number of bus tours linking museums and heritage sites in the city. Based on the principles of 'learning by doing' and cultural inclusiveness, it has led to increased museum visitation and a greater sense of community ownership of local heritage sites. Food vendors and horse-and-cart transport operators have done well; the Foundation has also observed a substantial increase of involvement by young people in the city's heritage programs.

Carlo Ebeo and Charisse Aquino-Tugade described their low-key small group tours to remote areas of the country that enable tourists to learn first-hand of local arts, crafts and culture. The activities are organised by the local communities, who are given training and logistical support. These low-impact, locally organised tours have influenced the way local politics is conducted and have revived a sense of pride in the local culture. The presentation acknowledged the importance of building community support before encouraging a broader take-up of these kinds of locally-directed programs. International delegates congratulated the speakers on devising an exemplary form of community-based tourism.

Jeremy Barns, Director of the Philippines National Museum, who had hosted a reception for the ICTC earlier in the week, gave an account of the extraordinarily broad reach of his institution's activities, which include the recently re-opened National Art Gallery, the national Planetarium, regional museums and key national heritage sites. The museum's enabling legislation gives it the power to declare national treasures and movable heritage items. He said his key tasks are to promote understanding of national collections and to develop museums into attractive tourist sites.

Rosario Dizon described how the Mindanao peace agreement had opened the way for tourism development in that island after years of conflict with armed rebels. The History & Culture Studies Centre for the Southern Islands has been established at Mindanao State University to help define and manage cultural and tourism projects. Natural sites such as waterfalls and caves have the most obvious potential for development as tourist sites in the short term.

The discussion of security in former war zones extended into the Open Forum following the conference presentations. It was agreed that patience and a welcoming attitude by local people will develop long-term rewards. There was concern that in the end the interests of local people will always take second place to the demands of a free market world economy. The forum ended, appropriately enough, with a discussion of fundraising mechanisms to support the conservation efforts of property owners in the host city.

The two day event gave local tourism planners and operators plenty of ideas and overseas examples to inspire their future activities. The international delegates, for their part, were impressed by the energy and imagination of their Filipino hosts; their presentations provided ample evidence of a     cultural tourism industry with potential for substantial development. The key is to cleverly build empowerment in local communities, so that the industry serves local cultural and economic needs as well as providing memorable and meaningful experiences for local and international travellers. (by Murray Brown, ICTC Secretary General)

International Cultural Tourism Committee holds its 2012 Annual Meeting in Vigan, Philippines

Saturday, November 03, 2012

ICOMOS ICTC President Susan M. Millar arrives in Manila

ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Committee (ICTC) President Susan M. Millar arrived in Manila last night for the ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Conference and 2012 ICTC Annual Meeting that will be held next week in the Historic Town of Vigan, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. She was met at the airport by ICOMOS Conference Chair Ivan Anthony S. Henares (right) and Co-Chair Ivan Homer U. Man Dy (left).

Wednesday, October 03, 2012

List of papers at International Conference on Cultural Tourism as of 27 August 2012

November 7, 2012 (Wednesday)
08:00-09:00     Registration
09:00-09:05     Philippine National Anthem
09:05-09:10     Welcome Message – Augusto F. Villalon, President, ICOMOS Philippines
09:10-09:20     Opening Address – Susan Millar, President, ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Committee (ICTC)
09:20-10:00     Keynote Address – Hon. Felipe de Leon, Chairman, National Commission for Culture and the Arts
10:00-10:30     Cultural Tourism: Challenges and Opportunities for Community Development / A Destination Approach to Protecting Heritage Values and Enhancing the Visitor Experience – Policy, Planning and Management – Susan Millar, ICTC President
10:30-11:00     Coffee Break
11:00-11:30     Tourism and Community Development through Successful Cultural Heritage Merchandising – Graham Brooks
11:30-12:00     Shared Built Heritage in Asia – Sue Jackson-Stepowski, ISC SBH Vice President
12:00-13:00     Lunch
13:00-13:30     Economic and Social Impact of Heritage – Michele Prats, Vice President, ICOMOS France
13:30-14:00     Community Based Tourism in the Philippines: National Tourism Development Plan and Intramuros Master Plan – Augusto Villalon, ICOMOS Philippines President
14:00-14:30     Cultural Heritage Tourism Development Framework for Enhancing Heritage for Tourism: Case Study, The Grand Trunk Road in Punjab, India – Gurmeet S Rai, Director, CRCI New Delhi
14:30-15:00     Gabii sa Kabilin – Joy Gerra, Ramon Aboitiz Foundation
15:00-15:30     Coffee Break
15:30-16:00     Heritage Site Visitation Management – Randy Durband, USA
16:00-16:30     Cultural Tourism in a Multi-Ethnic Traumatized Community – Pali Wijeratne, Sri Lanka
16:30-17:00     The Role of Cultural Heritage in Peacemaking and Rebuilding Post-Conflict Communities – Suzanne Bott, PhD
17:30-18:00     War and Peace in Tourism – Mark Torres, MSU Iligan
18:00-18:15     Announcements

November 8, 2012 (Thursday)
08:00-08:30     Arrival of Participants
08:30-09:00     High-Impact Tour Packages for Sustainable Community Development: The Case of Kularts Tribal Tours and Cultureight Travel – Carlo Ebeo and Charisse Aquino-Tugade
09:00-09:30     Liternature: Cultural Tourism Destination and Opportunity for Community – Kwangsik Kim, Senior Member, ICOMOS Korea
09:30-10:00     Cultural Tourists of the Future for the Asia-Pacific Region – Hilary du Cros
10:00-10:30     Coffee Break
10:30-11:00     Cultural Heritage and Local Development: A Case Study of District Mansehra KP, Pakistan – Sattar Fazli Durrani, Assistant Professor, Hazara University
11:00-11:30     Communicating Heritage Values - Creative Conversations – Peter Ross and Susan Millar, ICTC President
11:30-12:00     “Telling the Stories of The Rocks”:  Place Based Interpretation (Ian Kelly, Director, The Rocks and Circular Quay, Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority)
12:00-13:00     Lunch
13:00-13:30     The Heritage River Island, Assam – Dilip K. Medhi, Gauhati University, Guwahati Department of Anthropology
13:30-14:00     Developing Values-Based and Participatory Tourism: A Need for “River Island of Majuli Cultural Landscape in the Midstream of Brahmaputra River, Assam, India” for a Prospective World Heritage Site in North East India – GSV Suryanarayana Murthy, Conservation Architect, Hyderabad, India; and Syed Iftikar Hussain, CEO, Majuli Cultural Landscape Management Authority, Assam, India
14:00-14:30     Sustainable Tourism on World Heritage Properties Linked to Agricultural and Livestock Rearing Practices: Enhancing the Role of Communities – Celia Martínez, University of Granada, Spain
14:30-15:00     Small Town Heritage Tourism and the International Cultural Tourism Charter – Jim Donovan, FASLA
15:00-15:30     “The Castle and the Community” – The Key Role of Hillsborough Castle Northern Ireland in Cultural Tourism for Community Development – Sharon Brown and Alan Oliver, ICOMOS UK
15:30-16:00     Coffee Break
16:00-16:30     Limunsudan Falls, Northern Mindanao Heritage Tourism – Rosario Dizon
16:30-17:00     Argao Youth for Heritage Society - AYHS: Empowerment through Community-Based Cultural Education – Ruel Javier Rigor, AYHS Founder and Adviser
17:00-17:20     Open Forum
17:20-17:30     Conclusions and Announcements

For registration to the conference, send an e-mail to Note that seats are limited. We will accept participants on a first come, first served basis. Payment of conference fee confirms your slot.

Participation fees are Php3500 for professionals (inclusive of lunch on both days, conference kits) and Php600 for undergraduate students with ID (inclusive of packed lunch on both days, conference kits)

Note that the fees do not include transportation to/from Vigan and accommodation there. The City Tourism Office of Vigan, Ilocos Sur can assist you in looking for accommodation. You may contact the office at (077) 7228776 or Registration begins at 8 a.m. of Wednesday, November 7, 2012. Conference will end at 5:30 p.m. of Thursday, November 8, 2012.

For cash and check payments, you may deposit to:
International Council on Monuments & Sites Philippines, Inc.
Bank of the Philippine Islands S/A No. 3083 7113 95 (Loyola Katipunan Branch)

Scan and e-mail a copy of the deposit slip to Keep the original slip and present it when you register during the conference. You will need the deposit slip to claim your conference ID, kit and official receipt.

Monday, July 09, 2012

Register now for the ICOMOS ICTC International Conference on Cultural Tourism - November 7-8, 2012 (Vigan, Philippines)

Please pass on to colleges and universities, tourism industry stakeholders and policy-makers, cultural workers, policy makers, national government agencies, local government units and communities, and other interested individuals or institutions.

Cultural Tourism for Community Development / 40 Years of the World Heritage Convention
Vigan, Philippines, November 7-8, 2012

The international conference on cultural tourism organized by the ICOMOS International Scientific Committee on Cultural Tourism (ICTC) will be held at the City of Vigan, Philippines from November 7-8, 2012. The event is organized by ICOMOS Philippines. Vigan is a historic city and World Heritage Site located in the northern part of Luzon, Philippines. The city as venue for the conference is most apt as it is an example of a World Heritage site as an emerging tourism destination.

Through this event, expert members of ICTC will establish association with ICOMOS Philippines and representatives from developing countries of Asia and the Pacific to discuss present day issues on tourism and heritage. The topic on the benefits of community participation in conservation and cultural tourism programs as an essential aspect of cultural tourism will become the underlying theme of the conference and annual meeting.

The event will have a training component where students, faculty and other participants from the Philippines including ICOMOS Philippines members and participants from developing countries, especially in Asia and the Pacific, will draw inspiration from the different case studies and presentations for adaption to Philippine, Asian and the ICTC members countries’ cultural tourism contexts. Thus, it will be an opportunity for students and faculty of Philippine universities, tourism industry stakeholders, participants from these developing countries as well as ICOMOS Philippines & ICTC members to learn from the exchanges and experiences shared during the presentations.

For registration to the conference, send an e-mail to
Seats are limited. We will accept participants on a first come, first served basis.

Participation fees: Php3500 for professionals (inclusive of lunch on both days, conference kits)
Php2500 for ICOMOS Philippines members (inclusive of lunch on both day, conference kits)
Php600 for undergraduate students with ID (inclusive of packed lunch on both days, conference kits)

Conference Presentations
Actual case studies of on-the-ground projects or actual case studies on work of ICTC members with community development as a result of cultural tourism, as well as community tourism presentations from the Philippine Technical Cooperation Program with Developing Countries – Department of Foreign Affairs program that "assists, plans and implements technical cooperation programs for the least developed of developing countries” will be presented on November 7 & 8, 2012

Topics will focus on the issue of community participation in cultural tourism. The following are the sub-themes that maybe considered within the context of community tourism, for the presentations and case studies:

1. Social and Economic Community development through sustainable cultural tourism
     a. Sustainable Community-based tourism practices
     b. Benefits of community participation in conservation and cultural tourism programs
     c. Can join Economics of Tourism topics here

2. Values-based tourism
     a. Culture and nature Interpretation for tourism
     b. Information and education development for tourism

3. Economics of Tourism
     a. Honing cultural industries as tourism by-products
     b. Accommodations and home-stays development for economic development
     c. Communities and stakeholders involvement in tourism activities
     d. Government and/or NGOs initiatives in tourism
     e. Ticketing and tour packaging of heritage sites for tourism

4. Challenges and concerns of Tourism in Heritage Sites
     a. Tourism in-flux and its effects on heritage sites
     b. Over development and build-up outcomes in heritage sites
     c. Management of tourism destinations

5. Promotions and Marketing of Heritage for tourism
     a. Experiences and good practices in the marketing of heritage sites
     b. Challenges in marketing and advertisement of hard to sell heritage sites
     c. Enhancing heritage for tourism (facilities development, heritage information enhancement, etc)